Which model do I need?

There is a wealth of models available to help users to analyse different aspects of business and organisations and reach good decisions. There is no one-size-fits-all option, so you need to find which model or combination of models may be of use in your particular circumstances.

Below, we have organised the models listed in this topic into several categories to help you to distinguish which might be helpful to you, but be aware that many models can be applied or adapted to several uses, and we have not necessarily listed all of those uses, only the more common ones.

The categories into which we have grouped the models are

Where models have been covered here in some detail, we have bulleted the main uses. You will find more about some of these models, as well as other models, in specific topics on these subjects.

Change

Force field analysis

  • To assess what the forces for and against a particular change are, and how strong each pressure is
  • To help you to understand and analyse the factors that will be against your change so you can act in advance to minimise these
  • To enable you to approach the change in a way that negates negative factors for individuals, helping the change process to be managed much more smoothly
  • To decide whether it is worth trying to make a change or not

Kotter’s eight-stage change model

  • To plan and lead organisational change effectively by identifying possible problems

The seven S framework

  • Assessing the potential for success of the organisation
  • Prioritising what is important at any given time
  • Coordinating all organisational attributes toward goals and deciding how to manage situations of change.

Business process redesign

Capability maturity model

Change quadrants

Chaos model

Cultural web

Deming cycle

EFQM model

Greiner’s growth model

Seven forces model

Sociological organisation

Cost-analysis and management

Balanced scorecard

  • To improve and align strategy and to justify budgets

Economies of scale

  • To identify where improvements to production, processes or costs can be made to raise profits
  • To increase efficiency and reduce costs by better job design and cost controls, greater workforce efficiency and improving managerial techniques

Internal rate of return (IRR)

  • To calculate whether particular projects will be good investments and help to clarify the level of risk and return involved in new ventures
  • To help with buying decision making
  • To determine whether to purchase new equipment for projects or not

Net present value (NPV)

  • To calculate whether particular projects will be good investments
  • To understand the level of risk and return involved in new ventures

Activity-based cost (ABC) analysis

Just-in-time

Kaizen

Overhead value analysis

Supply and demand

IT

Nolan’s IT growth strategies

Leadership

Situational leadership

  • To identify the best way to manage and lead any particular situation
  • To assess the leadership styles that managers have
  • To consider how to manage groups

Kotter’s eight-stage change model

  • To plan and lead organisational change effectively by identifying possible problems

Action-centred leadership

Chaos model

Compliance typology

EFQM model

Hofstede’s cultural dimensions

Neurotic organisation

Management

Benchmarking

  • To assess whether changes are needed in order to improve business performance.

Economies of scale

  • To identify where improvements to production, processes or costs can be made to raise profits
  • To increase efficiency and reduce costs by better job design and cost controls, greater workforce efficiency and improving managerial techniques

Adizes PAEI management roles

Deming cycle

The Gods of management (a cultures model)

GROW

Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory

Hofstede’s cultural dimensions

Kaizen

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Network analysis (project management)

Sociological organisation

Marketing

7 Ps of the marketing mix

Organisation, processes, learning

Benchmarking

  • To assess whether changes are needed in order to improve business performance.

Competing values of organisational effectiveness

Core competencies

Cultural web

Customer marketing and relationship management

EFQM model

Fifth discipline

Four competencies of the learning organisation

Kay’s distinctive capabilities

Product assessment and strategies

Ansoff’s box

  • Strategy development – to consider whether to create new products or to enter new markets with existing ones (the model helps you to evaluate the options against one another)
  • Business growth – to look at how new products or new markets can be combined to create wealth for the business.

BCG matrix

  • To see where product development is required
  • To see where to allocate resources
  • To create growth through promoting the appropriate products

Break-even analysis (or CPV)

  • To figure out the number of sales required in order to break even
  • To calculate how costs, revenues and profits are linked to sales volumes

Product life cycle

  • To assess at which phase in its life cycle a given product now stands and what is likely to happen in the near future
  • To determine product strategies at any time.

Specimen standardised strategies

  • To review product portfolios

7 Ps of the marketing mix

PIMS (profit impact of marketing strategy)

Supply and demand

Purchasing

Internal rate of return (IRR)

  • To help with buying decision making
  • To determine whether to purchase new equipment for projects or not

Net present value (NPV)

  • To help with decision making about buying
  • To determine whether to purchase new equipment for projects or not

Krajlic’s purchasing model

Self management

Covey’s seven habits of highly effective people

Eisenhower’s effective time management

Offman’s core quadrants

Time management matrix

Strategic decision making

Ansoff’s box

  • Strategy development – to consider whether to create new products or to enter new markets with existing ones (the model helps you to evaluate the options against one another)
  • Business growth – to look at how new products or new markets can be combined to create wealth for the business

Balanced scorecard

  • To help companies set themselves strategic objectives that will help the firm progress in a more thoughtful and balanced way
  • To improve and align strategy and to justify budgets

Break-even analysis

  • To figure out the number of sales required in order to break even
  • To decide pricing strategy

MOST

  • To define the direction and purpose of the organisation
  • To assess company performance and to consider where best to focus resources and how to prioritise

PEST/PESTLIED

  • To analyse organisations
  • To help you to have a broad perspective and not just look inwards when making decisions
  • To plan to try to cover as many angles as possible

Porter’s diamond

  • To assess the potential of a country for any particular business
  • To understand levels of resources and skills available in a nation
  • To pinpoint pressure for innovation and investment
  • To identify of potential alliances in a country
  • To change strategy within a country

Porter’s five forces

  • To better understand potential threats that may manifest themselves and to assess the balance of power in the industry
  • To create a counteractive strategy against one or more of the competitive forces
  • A company can also use this model to consider where it should strengthen its position
  • To identify gaps in the marketplace and create products that might defend the company against a substitute or a potential entrant

Product life cycles

  • To assess at which phase in its life cycle a given product now stands and what is likely to happen in the near future
  • To determine product strategies at any time.
  • It could also be utilised to analyse the state of a marketing strategy or business process

The seven S framework

  • Assessing the potential for success of the organisation
  • Analysing why organisations are ineffective
  • Prioritising what is important at any given time
  • Coordinating all organisational attributes toward goals and deciding how to manage situations of change.

Specimen standardised strategies

  • To decide between different types of strategy, depending on corporate strengths and market attractiveness
  • To review company or business unit strategies

SWOT analysis

  • To determine the current situation of companies/business units and analyse how best to move forward
  • To analyse process failures and identify improvements
  • To tackle organisational problems

The value chain

  • To assess how the company can become more competitive
  • To determine how all of the parts of a company can work better together or more efficiently for competitive advantage by leveraging synergies or integration possibilities To better understand customer needs or to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the competition.

Core competencies

EFQM model

Generic competitive strategies

Greiner’s growth model

Levers of control

MABA analysis

Malcolm Baldridge award

Mintzberg’s configurations

Parenting advantage

PIMS (profit impact of marketing strategy)

Risk award analysis

Schools of strategy synthesis

Value disciplines

Team building

Adizes PAEI management roles

Belbin’s team roles